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Monday, January 3, 2011

Ramesses the Second ‘History and Reforming His Photo by Photoshop.

Ramesses II (reigned 1279 BCE to 1213 BCE - also known as Ramesses the Great .It is also written Ramses and Rameses . 
He was the third Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth dynasty. 

He is often regarded as Egypt's greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh. His successors and later Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor".

The Reformed Photo

The Original Photo

At age fourteen, Ramesses was appointed Prince Regent by his father Seti I.[Seti the first ] He is believed to have taken the throne in his early 20s and is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC for a total of 66 years and 2 months . He was once said to have lived to be 99 years old, but it is more likely that he died in his 90th or 91st year.On his death, he was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings.His body now on display in the Cairo Museum.

Ramesses II led several expeditions north into the lands east of the Mediterranean (the location of the modern Lebanon , Syria and  Palestine). He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia .
The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples and monuments. He established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and main base for his campaigns in Syria. This city was built on the remains of the city of Avaris, the capital of the Hyksos when they took over, and was the location of the main Temple of Set. 

Campaigns and battles 
Early in his life, Ramesses II started numerous campaigns to return previously held territories back from Nubian to secure Egypt's borders. and also on Libya.He was the leader of the famous Battle of Kadesh .The Egyptian army is estimated to have totaled about 100,000 men; a great force that he used to strengthen Egyptian influence.

Battle against Sherden sea pirates
The Sherden people probably came from the coast of Ionia or possibly south-west Turkey. They were wreaking havoc along Egypt's Mediterranean coast by attacking cargo-laden vessels travelling the sea routes to Egypt .

The Ramesseum is the memorial temple,it is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. 

Abu Simbel 
In 1255 BCE Ramesses and his queen Nefertari had traveled into Nubia to inaugurate a new temple, the great Abu Simbel. It is an ego cast in stone; the man who built it intended not only to become Egypt's greatest pharaoh but also one of its gods.
 Ramesses left also some other monuments to himself in Nubia .

Tomb of Nefertari 
It is extremely important, because its magnificent wall painting decoration is regarded as one of the greatest achievements of ancient Egyptian art. 

Death and legacy
By the time of his death, aged about 90 years, Ramesses was suffering from severe dental problems and was plagued by arthritis and hardening of the arteries. He had made Egypt rich .

He had outlived many of his wives and children and left great memorials all over Egypt, especially to his beloved first queen Nefertari. Nine more pharaohs would take his name Ramesses in his honour, but few ever equalled his greatness.
Less than 150 years after Ramesses died the Egyptian empire fell and the New Kingdom came to an end.

The pharaoh's mummy features a hooked nose and strong jaw, and stands at some 1.7 meters (5 ft 7 in)
After an x-ray they found that the mummy's neck had a piece of wood lodged into the upper chest, essentially keeping the head in place. It is believed that during the mummification process that the head of Ramesses II had accidentally been knocked off by those performing the mummification. In Egyptian culture if any part of the body were to come off then the soul of the body would not continue to exist in the afterlife, therefore those performing the mummification carefully placed the head back on by lodging a wooden stick into the neck in order to keep the head in place.
For the last decades of his life, Ramesses II was essentially crippled with arthritis and walked with a hunched back.
A significant hole in the pharaoh's mandible was detected. Researchers observed "an abscess by his teeth (which) was serious enough to have caused death by infection.

The story is collected from many resources .

When I saw the photo of the mummy of the pharaoh, I felt afraid so I wanted to add some nice looking.
In that design I apply many tricks of photoshop I increase the size of the photo and added canvas to it.I used the layer styles and some others .

    First of all, open new document in Photoshop in the same dimensions as the photo.
  • Convert the background layer to normal layer by right clicking it and, choose layer from background.
  • Convert the picture to smart object by right clicking it and, choose smart object.
  • To increase the image size go to image menu -choose image size. Be sure that the <constrain proportion> is checked and then  increase the width of the size of document the height will increase proportionally ,click OK. Do the same as the diagram below.  
  • Add layer style to the picture [ Bevel and emboss] 

  •   Add new layer then select it then drag the new layer under the layer 0[ background layer before we changed it]  
  • Select the Custom Shape Tool and choose any shape and the snake skin style .Select the new layer to draw the shape on it ,then go to the layer panel and select the vector mask thumbnail, and delete it from the button below  you will get delete vector mask?click OK. 
  • Now you deleted the shape not the style.

  • Go to the image menu and choose canvas size to open the dialog box .And add 3 cm to both width and height and choose anchor to center .
  •  Again go to the Custom Shape Tool and choose color and style and shape of frame and draw frame for the picture. 
  • Save your work .  
Manal Raafat

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